They use Brandt as an anchor for the whole analysis. This is the first attempt to redress the injustice done to the memory of German minorities by the popular equation of 'Lebensraum' and Nazism; minorities, many of whom chose to be neighbours rather than enemies and who over time peacefully shared with other nationalities the territorial space east of the Reich. Hitler investigates what it was that motivated this national leader to commit such monstrosities which still cast a shadow over Europe today. This article traces the history of all ethnic minorities in Estonia and views them from a broader perspective. This description is not true in the Baltic case, as one can observe that the small number of historians of these countries have directed significant shares of their resources to investigating the Nazi past. At the other extreme, the events have been underestimated and their distinctiveness has been disputed.
The more promising part of the chapter is the discussion of the refugee organizations, such as the politically engaged Bund der Vertriebene and the academic society Baltische Historische Komission. He joined the University of Bradford in 1979. Was the League of Nations really such a thing? He advised the British government about policy towards the Baltic states at the time they were approaching independence and after. It does little good to reproduce clichés about certain nations doing too little or even being reluctant to admit their part in Nazi crimes. John Hiden John William Hiden 1940-2012 was a British historian who was of Baltic studies at and senior research fellow at.
He was survived by his wife, Juliet, whom he married in 1963, and their two children. Should it be an elite undertaking pioneered by statesmen elected to democratic government offices, or should true unification also demand a significant European cultural forum open to spokesmen and -women representing the continent's nationality groups? Ewald Ammende, the European Nationalities Congress and National Socialism', Central and East European Review 1 2007 pp. After you're set-up, your website can earn you money while you work, play or even sleep! While criticizing other historians for a too-narrow interpretation of Lebensraum, the authors open themselves to criticism for stretching the term too broadly. Here, history of memory occasionally lapses into paternalistic observations about the lack of proper historical consciousness among certain communities and peoples. He is Reader in Modern History at the University of Bradford.
Instead, this study analyses Estonian interpretations of what occurred. One of the many challenges that Estonia faced when it gained independence was the minority question. In this article I will focus on why Estonia decided to pass a law that was exceptional in the atmosphere of that time. He finished his career as emeritus professor of Baltic studies at Bradford and senior research fellow at Glasgow University. If the authors had succeeded in using a historiographical chapter to strengthen their argument, the change of course would not hinder the book's argument. But eventually we are told that those conditions were not important at all, since the average soldiers involved never served at the front before embarking on their murderous mission.
Hiden and Housden contrast Brandt's new thinking about East-West relations with the perspectives and policies of the Konrad Adenauer government, as well as the organizations representing the expellees from East-Central Europe Bund der Vertriebene in particular. You should start right now! His Vision for the Organisation of National Minorities in Europe' in B. Ewald Ammende and his Idea of a Peaceful Continent', Przeglad Stosunkow Miedzynarodowych The International Affairs Review 154 2006 pp. It should also be noted that they have been busy counting the victims of two, not one, criminal regimes. It would have been interesting to know, for example, whether there was any debate in these communities on Brandt's new Ostpolitik, which the expellees condemned.
The article is based on the systematic study of Estonian press and archival sources. Answers are sought to the following questions: What were the ethnic relations like in Estonia in 1918—1925? One has become accustomed to social scientists telling us what is proper national identity and what is the right way to remember the past, an acceptable stance when these normative claims are backed up by solid theory which we do not find here. It's easy to get started - we will give you example code. What is, in the end, the authors' new insight on the debate about Hitler's willing executioners? Coming to terms with the consequences of collapsed empires and at least four years of conflict, they were forced to consider how best to re-build their continent as if it were a tabula rasa. He receiving his PhD from the in 1970. Responsibility: John Hiden and Martyn Housden.
For example, it would have been interesting to know more about the Nazification of the Baltic-German community in the 1930s. These laws empowered ethnic communities within states as extra-territorial public corporations, thus possessing certain rights in the cultural sphere. The narrative came to be composed of a few key elements describing the entire conflict in general and in a stereotypical way. Their voices, reflecting their status as national minorities and a geographical location beyond the borders of the post-war Great Powers, deserve to be written more thoroughly into the history of the interwar years. Did they change in the course of time? In summary, it can be said that there were about ten factors, which were different, yet interconnected and similar in their impact, and only together did they provide sufficient impetus to make it possible to approve autonomy.
Why, then, spend so much time on these conditions? Their borderland experiences, particularly in the Baltic region, the historic interface between East and West, are all the more relevant as Hitler's regime recedes into the past and Europe seeks to renew itself in the wake of the Cold War. Are they implying that Bonn should have opted for a neutral Germany, as Stalin was offering, with the likely prospect of becoming the next people's democracy within the Soviet bloc? Baltic Perspectives on the Work of the League of Nations' in M. It is not clear why the authors repeat standard narratives about the new Ostpolitik of West German chancellor Willy Brandt at the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s pp. By presenting a critical selection of primary source material this book examines Hitler's background and involvement in the rise of National Socialism, the government of the Third Reich, leadership of the Second World War in Germany and his psychology, to discuss Hitler's credentials as a revolutionary. Their borderland experiences, particularly in the Baltic region, the historic interface between East and West, are all the more relevant as Hitler's regime recedes into the past and Europe seeks to renew itself in the wake of the Cold War. . The 1925 law on cultural autonomy of minorities guaranteed Estonia's most significant minorities the right to independently decide how they wanted to arrange their own national-cultural matters.
Estonia's Model of Cultural Autonomy as Interpreted by Two of its Founders: Werner Hasselblatt and Ewald Ammende', Journal of Baltic Studies 35 2004 pp. His first academic post was at the 1973—79. With this chapter, they turn to historiographical debates on the Third Reich, a shift in focus that obscures the authors' claims of bringing new insights to the origins and the causes of the escalation of Nazi terror. This paper concentrates on examining the activity of the Swedish Estonian political elite, in particular, and the discourse about the matter. The main thesis appears to be that ideology was important. In the process, they provided intelligent, perceptive analyses of the national and international affairs of the day, particularly as they affected Central and Eastern Europe. It would have improved the book significantly had the authors considered more carefully what their intended contribution to scholarship was.