This original study explores some significant connections between science and philosophy and adds to our understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. Now Available: The extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature. Species selections on variability; 5. The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory. In : Further Reflections in Natural History.
They are co-authors of and both with John Bellamy Foster. Confirmation of evolutionary and ecological models; 4. Taken together, the papers in this volume display Lloyd's passion for philosophy of biology as well as her great respect for the science of biology in all of its particularity: its Talmudic debates in evolutionary theory, its plural practices, and its tight imbrication with social context. As she weighs the evidence, Lloyd takes on nearly everyone who has written on the subject: evolutionists, animal behaviorists, and feminists alike. A semantic approach to the structure of population genetics; 3. Feminism and scientific theory can be uninspiring bedfellows, but Lloyd proves here that tenacity and hard work can bring them to a readable climax.
Lloyd is Arnold and Maxine Tanis Chair of History and Philosophy of Science and Professor of Biology at Indiana University and an Affiliated Faculty Scholar at the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. A judicious and revealing look at all twenty evolutionary accounts of the trait of human female orgasm, Lloyd's book is at the same time a case study of how certain biases steer science astray. We criticize this approach and attempt to reassert a competing notion long popular in continental Europe that organisms must be analysed as integrated wholes, with Baupläne so constrained by phyletic heritage, pathways of development and general architecture that the constraints themselves become more interesting and more important in delimiting pathways of change than the selective force that may mediate change when it occurs. Pre-theoretical assumptions in evolutionary explanations of female sexuality. These are, first, the problem of which units or entities are selected in nature; second, the problem of reductionism in genetics; and third, the problem of confirmation. She also offers an innovative analysis of the concept of objectivity.
Lloyd provides a measured and scholarly evaluation of adaptive and non-adaptive explanations for human female orgasm, a trait that has been the subject of some controversy, and she does it without jargon or acrimony. ? Why women evolved to have orgasms--when most of their primate relatives don't--is a persistent mystery among evolutionary biologists. Lloyd studied under at for a PhD in philosophy 1980 — 1984. He made major contributions to post-Darwinian evolutionary theory, its philosophy, and history. Finally, she presents a view of confirmation appropriate to a model-oriented conception of theories. Lloyd has scrutinized 21 evolutionary accounts of female orgasm and makes a convincing case for the single account that treats orgasm as a happy accident, a byproduct of the role that male orgasm plays in reproduction and the sharing of early embryonic tissue by the male and female genitalia.
Elisabeth Lloyd's publications include both books and professional articles. Keywords No keywords specified fix it Categories No categories specified categorize this paper Options. Find new facing-page translations of classic works from the , , , and. Thus female orgasm is a biological puzzle. The field of philosophy of biology took shape in the 1980s and 1990s against the grain of a philosophy of science focused largely on questions in physics and mathematics.
The author begins by reviewing recent debates concerning the existence or non-existence of evolutionary laws and the possibility of axiomizing evolutionary theory. Human orgasm evolved because men need it to reproduce, and women got it as a developmental byproduct. There are 28 pages of helpful chapter-by-chapter notes and a well-formulated bibliography and index. In this study, Lloyd contends with the scientific and philosophical critics of evolutionary theory. As for genitalia, because men need ejaculatory penises, women end up with clitorises capable of similar sexual pleasures. Lloyd examines several of the central topics in philosophy of biology, including the structure of evolutionary theory, units of selection, and evolutionary psychology, as well as the Science Wars, feminism and science, and sexuality and objectivity.
Lloyd analyses the structure of evolutionary theory and unlocks the puzzle of the units of selection debates into four distinct aspects, illuminating several mysteries in the biology literature. The implications of this line of research for a modular view of human reasoning are discussed, as well as the utility of evolutionary biology in the development of computational theories. They demonstrate how the Gouldian perspective sheds light on many of the key debates occurring not only in the natural sciences, but in the social sciences as well. Developing a view of evolutionary theory based on mathematical models, she uses this framework to describe a wide variety of evolutionary subtheories. The search for an answer reads like a mystery story and involves the critical examination of 18 theories developed on the premise that the human female orgasm is an evolutionary adaptation.
A common objection is that the theory does not fit the hypothetical-deductive standard used in the physical sciences and is therefore not good science. What, after all, is sexier than a well-constructed argument? This book brings together important essays by one of the leading philosophers of science at work today. The experimental design included eight critical tests designed to choose between social exchange theory and these other two families of theories; the results of all eight tests support social exchange theory. She tests her analysis by comparing it with other approaches and applying it to problematic cases. The material in this archive documents her work in philosophy of biology. It is based on faith in the power of natural selection as an optimizing agent. Through her extensive analysis of 37 years of research on the topic, she argues against the prominent theory that the female orgasm is an adaptation that has evolved to improve reproductive success… Lloyd provides a careful and impartial analysis of the validity of the findings from cross-cultural, animal, and human sexuality studies.
It is a model of how to fairly and critically look at adaptation. It is an examination of how evolutionary biologists think, and how their system of gathering and evaluating knowledge can falter. Objectivity and the double standard for feminist epistemologies; 10. While a student at Princeton, she spent a year 1983 studying with at. Science, Politics, and Evolution assembles Elisabeth A.
Lloyd challenges the current evolutionary accounts of the female orgasm and analyses them for bias. Drawing especially on data from nonhuman primates and human sexology over eighty years, Lloyd shows what damage such bias does in the study of female orgasm. An adaptationist programme has dominated evolutionary thought in England and the United States during the past 40 years. We support Darwin's own pluralistic approach to identifying the agents of evolutionary change. Because women need nipples to suckle their babies, men end up with rudimentary versions too. The author invalidates each of these theories by an examination of their assumptions and, in many cases, the frailty of their supporting data… With its 355 references, this book is a study of the power of a careful analysis of data to show the weaknesses of certain theories. An analysis of the makeup of evolutionary models is used to clarify some vexing units of the problem of selection.